Cover to Broadway Cast Recording


(Music by Leonard Bernstein: Lyrics by Richard Wilbur: Book adapted from Voltaire by Hugh Wheeler: Additional lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and John Latouche)

Martin Beck Theatre, Broadway - December 1, 1956 (73 perfs)

Saville Theatre, London - April 30, 1959 (60 perfs)

This brilliant musical setting of Voltaire's classic novel of the trials and tribulations of four young philosophers thrust by their tutor, Dr. Pangloss, into a cynical and predatory world has achieved a classic status in the musical repertoire.


After the overture our fable opens in Westphalia, at Schloss Thunder-ten-Tronck.

Candide, illegitimate nephew to the Baron, is scorned by the Baron's son, Maximilian, and loves his beautiful daughter, Cunégonde. Maximilian is in love with the maid, Paquette. The young people are happy because their professor, Doctor Pangloss, instils in them an undiluted optimism - an optimism that is the best of all possible worlds. In the Schloss park, Candide and Cunégonde declare their love. The Baron, however, is outraged at suggestions of their marriage, considering Candide a social inferior. The young man is expelled from the castle and wanders alone, still retaining his ingrained optimism. Though he has lost his love he consols himself with the thought that it must be for a reason.

Candide is press-ganged into the Bulgar army, which attacks and destroys the Schloss. The inhabitants are killed, including Cunégonde who is first raped. Full of sadness, Candide roams on until he comes across the ever-optimistic Pangloss, who has been wounded and now sports a metal nose. With no money, they sail to Lisbon on a merchant ship, where they witness a catastrophic earthquake. Then they are arrested as heretics, Pangloss hanged and Candide flogged. But, still hopeful, Candide travels on.

In Paris, a mysterious beauty has great men fighting over her. Candide recognises Cunégonde who brushes aside her apparent rebirth. Killing the two men who dominate her life, Cunégonde flees to Cadiz with her jewels, Candide and her companion, a game Old Lady. They are robbed and the Old Lady sings for money, telling her listeners how easily she can swap nationalities. Accepting a commission to fight for the Jesuits in South America, the companions set sail.

In Buenos Aires, they are startled to discover Maximilian and Paquette, both apparently risen from the dead, just like Cunégonde. The Governor of Buenos Aires falls for Cunégonde and, again, Maximilian deems Candide unfit for his sister. Inadvertently, Candide stabs Maximilian and flees into the forest. After many adventures, including discovering Eldorado, he sends treasure to buy Cunégonde back from the Governor, and a message for her to meet him in Venice.

Working his way to Italy, in the Dutch colony of Surinam, Candide meets Martin, a professional pessimist. But even Martin's arguments cannot dent the young man's hopeful outlook. To get to Cunégonde. Candide buys a ship from the trader Vanderdendur. The vessel sinks, but Candide is rescued by a raft on which he discovers the miraculously restored Pangloss. Reaching Venice at last, they find that Maximilian has been reanimated for a third time. He is the Prefect of Police there and is under the thumb of crooks. Moreover, Cunégonde. and the Old Lady slave day and night to earn a living in the casino.

Together again, the four attempt to console each other and buy a small farm outside the city to start afresh. Here, Candide considers his life. His illusions have been shattered, especially about the self-seeking Cunégonde. Then it dawns upon him that life is really neither 'good' nor 'bad', but there to be lived and made the best of. He is reconciled to Cunégonde. and his love for her is now on a new, mature basis.


3 Male, 3 Female.

Dr Pangloss
Old Lady

Chorus: playing about 50 different characters.

Musical Numbers:

  1. Life Is Happiness Indeed
  2. Best Of All Possible Worlds
  3. Oh Happy We
  4. It Must Be So
  5. Glitter and Be Gay
  6. Auto-da-fé
  7. Candide's Lament
  8. You Were Dead You Know
  9. I Am Easily Assimilated
  10. Ballad of the New World
  11. My Love
  12. Eldorado
  13. Sheep Song
  14. The Governor's Waltz
  15. Bon Voyage
  16. Quiet
  17. What's the Use
  18. Make Our Garden Grow


Original Production - CD Sony SK-48017
New York City Opera Production - New World NW 340/341
New Broadway Cast Recording - RCA Victor 09026-68835-2